Trying to get some good progress on your fitness goals? Most people perform cardiovascular and strength training in the same session because it seems to achieve multiple goals at the same time. Yet scientists and trainers continue to ask whether or not this approach really achieves multiple goals or is, in fact, counterproductive. The answer seems to lie in the fact that our muscles are smart—they know the difference between cardiovascular, strength and flexibility work.
What is Muscle Confusion?什么是肌肉困惑?
Muscle confusion is the idea that by constantly changing your workouts, you “confuse” your muscles and thereby increase the stimulation and resulting adaptation. Muscles get confused (just like you and I sometimes do). If you walk into a yoga studio ready to do yoga, but the room is filled with indoor cycles, you get confused. Muscles are the same way. When you combine strength and cardio in the same session, your muscles get confused at the molecular level. The molecular mechanisms associated with gains can cancel each other out, which will diminish your results.肌肉困惑是指通过不断地改变你的训练方式,你会“混淆”你的肌肉,从而刺激肌肉和产生适应性。肌肉会感到困惑(就像你和我有时做的那样)。如果你走进瑜伽馆,准备做瑜伽,但房间里充满了室内循环训练,你会感到困惑。肌肉也是如此。当你把力量和有氧运动结合在一起时,你的肌肉就会在分子水平上被混淆。与增益相关的分子机制可以相互抵消,这将大大降低你的训练成果。
It is widely accepted that combined training adversely impacts strength, but not endurance. Therefore, make sure to find ways to program to overcome muscle confusion and achieve strength gains, while not forgetting about cardiovascular and flexibility training. The main things for you to consider are length of recovery time after strength training, and the frequency, type, intensity and volume of endurance training.人们普遍认为,二者结合的训练对体力有负面影响,而不是耐力。因此,一定要找到方法来避免肌肉的困惑,从而实现力量的增长,同时不要忘记有氧和柔韧性训练。你要考虑的主要因素是力量训练后的恢复时间,以及耐力训练的频率、类型、强度和数量。
Recovery Time恢复时间
Muscles need 48 hours for baseline strength to recover from high-intensity strength training. Building recovery time into any training program is important because this is the time that the body adapts to the stress of exercise and the real training effect takes place. Recovery also allows the body to replenish energy stores and repair damaged tissues.肌肉至少需要48小时的时间才能从高强度的训练恢复到基础水平。将恢复时间加入到任何训练计划中都是非常重要的,因为这个时间段是身体能够适应训练强度和产生训练效果的最佳时期。恢复期还能让身体补充能量,修复受损的肌肉组织。
Frequency and Volume训练量频率和训练量
Based on what was mentioned above about recovery, if you design a program that includes both muscle strength and endurance goals, it is best to schedule each type of exercise on alternate days. For example, if you do resistance training one day, focus on cardio and conditioning the next. Other programming suggestions include limiting endurance-training frequency to fewer than three days per week to minimize the effects on strength. How much is too much? It is recommended that endurance training sessions last between 20 and 30 minutes to minimize the negative effects of volume or amount of endurance training on strength gains.根据上文所说,如果你的训练计划包含力量训练和耐力计划,那么最好将这两种训练分开。例如,如果前一天做抗阻训练,那么隔一天最好做有氧训练。还有一种训练计划是:尽量降低耐力训练频率,一周少于三次,从而降低对力量的影响。如何制定训练量?我们推荐将耐力训练控制在20至30分钟之间,以减少耐力训练对力量增长所带来的的负面效果。
Type of Cardiovascular Exercise 有氧训练的类型
The type of cardio exercise you choose is critical, along with the intensity and volume of it. Research shows, for example, that running combined with strength training results in greater strength loss than cycling combined with strength training. Consequently, it is recommended to include cycling in combined training programs versus running where strength is the primary goal.采用什么样的有氧训练方式是非常重要的,需要考虑到强度和训练量。研究表明,跑步和力量训练结合所带来的力量下降要比单车和力量训练结合的方式来的多。因此,在力量优先的情况下,建议在训练计划中加入单车而不是单纯的跑步。
The extent of strength impairment is directly related to the intensity of the endurance training. Moderate- to high-intensity endurance training reduced the effectiveness of strength training. Therefore, the intensity of endurance sessions should be decreased to limit the negative impact on strength gains. But, low-intensity endurance training sessions may not negatively impact strength gains, but are they useful to reaching your overall fitness goals? The frequency of moderate- to high-intensity sessions might should be considered on a case-by-case basis.力量损伤程度与耐力训练强度直接相关。中等到高强度的耐力训练会降低力量训练的效果。因此,耐力训练的强度应该降低,以减少对力量增长的负面影响。但是,低强度的耐力训练可能不会带来负面影响,但是它们对你的整体健康目标有帮助吗?因此,中等到高强度的训练计划的频率还需要具体问题具体分析。
So, make sure that you know your fitness goal, and train yourself based on the factors that mentioned in the article. Our body is magical, by understanding how it works, you can get twice the result even with half the effort.因此,要明确训练目标,减少盲目训练。人的身体是很神奇的,只有了解了身体运作机制,训练就能达到事半功倍的效果。

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